By Harold Johnston
This quantity tells the unconventional precise tales pertaining to hugely proficient civilian scientists in a few strange areas and occasions in the course of international struggle II. the aim of the paintings is to give a nearly forgotten historical past of mystery conflict examine in universities. the focal point is at the slim topic of chemical struggle learn and on a small variety of contributors, yet with in-depth research of those contributors and what they did. more often than not graduate scholars and younger teachers, they have been operating below the path of professors on the California Institute of expertise (Caltech) and the collage of California (Berkeley). motion happened in California, Florida and the jungles of Panama. This heritage touches at the paintings of 4 senior Nobel Prize winners and 8 junior, destiny Nobel Prize winners at Caltech and Berkeley.
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With affection I recalled Minnie, who worked for them from when I was age two to eight. As a small boy, I had played with a Negro boy about my age, and we were friends. After entering the first grade of school, I rarely saw that friend again. In the third grade, my best friend Frank owned a billy goat, and we had fun as the goat ran rapidly and erratically down the sidewalk pulling a wagon just big enough for two small boys. As we were playing at the edge of the woods one day, Frank picked up a broken pine limb, pulled off the brown needles and some twigs, and aimed it as if it were a gun.
121 Gates is a small square room. We went promptly to work, keely speaking to each other only as needed to operate the system. The fluorine maker was an awlward looking machine. 5 m). The lower two thirds was a large pot that contained sodium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid or HF. The upper third of the fluorine machine had a fdter of sodium fluoride that removed HF fi-om the fluorine gas, F2, and a high/low temperature reactor. The job had three distinct stages.
The Army’s rack with its S-10 stood on the desk about half a meter from the hood and about three meters from John and me. John worked the input side of the system on the laboratory bench and transferred some of the “poof” from its cold liquid state into a gas in a spherical twelve-liter glass bulb. He slowly filled the bulb with pure dry nitrogen from a large high pressure tank and proceeded to mix the “poof” and nitrogen in the flask. A constant flow of nitrogen gas went into the twelve-liter flask and out another tube.
A Bridge Not Attacked: Chemical Warfare Civilian Research During World War II by Harold Johnston