By Richard Twyman
This e-book emphasises the unifying rules and mechanisms of molecular biology, with common use of tables and bins to summarise experimental facts and gene and protein features.
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Additional info for Advanced molecular biology: a concise reference
Intrinsic monitoring insures that the stages of the cell cycle proceed in the correct order and that one stage is completed before the next begins. Extrinsic monitoring coordinates cell division with cell growth and arrests the cell ifcycle the environment is unsuitable. The cell cycleis controlledby protein kinases. Cell cycle transitions involve positive feedback loopswhichcause sudden bursts of kinaseactivity,allowingswitchesinthestatesof phosphorylation of batteries of effector proteins. Cell cycle checkpoints are regulatory systems which inhibit those kinasesif the internal or external environmentis unsuitable.
1995)Chromosome parTrends Genet. 13 222-226. Nasmyth, K. Annu. Rev. Genet. 2 9 41-67. cell cycle. Trends Genet. 12 405-412. R. B. (1997)'Qing it all together: Epigenetics, genetics, cell cycle and cancer. Science 277 Chapter 3 Chromatin I I Fundamentalconceptsanddefinitions The DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes exists in a complex with an approximately equal mass of protein, forming a highly ordered nucleoprotein substance termed chromatin. The protein component of chromatin consists primarily of histones plus a small amount of other proteins, collectively termed nonhistones.
Chromatincondensesandmitoticspindlebeginstoform. These are probably direct resultsof phosphorylation of target proteins by M-phase kinase Prometaphase In metazoans, breakdown of nuclear envelope allows mitotic spindle access to chromosomes. Some spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores. Nuclear reorganization is also directly regulated by M-phase kinase. Pairedkinetochoresseparatetowards poles as kinetochore microtubules shorten; poles also move apart as polar microtubules repel each other. Proteolytic machinery responsible for cyclinB degradation probably This stage also targets a protein whichbinds sister chromatids together (ScclIMcdl).
Advanced molecular biology: a concise reference by Richard Twyman