By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
This quantity is the 3rd of a suite of 7 regarding photovoltaics. sunlight cell-related applied sciences lined right here comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer an identical crystalline silicon; and different complicated silicon sunlight mobilephone buildings and processes.
Semiconductors and Semimetals has extraordinary itself in the course of the cautious choice of famous authors, editors, and participants. initially widely recognized because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing quite a few landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely proper volumes meant for long term influence and reflecting the really interdisciplinary nature of the sphere. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may remain of serious curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and machine engineers in academia, clinical laboratories and glossy industry.
- Written and edited by means of across the world well known experts
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Additional info for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,
2013a, 2014). , 2013b). , 2011). 5. ADVANCED EMITTER FORMATION The pn-junction can be described as the heart of a c-Si solar cell, as it is responsible for the separation of charge carriers. For emitter formation within the standard solar cell process with a B-doped p-type base and a P-doped n-type emitter several factors have to be considered, the most important ones are listed in the following. • j0e should be low enough to allow for high Voc values (see Eq. 24)19 • Rsheet should be low enough to provide good conductivity for lateral carrier transport toward the grid fingers • Surface concentration of P atoms should be high enough to allow contacting of the emitter via Ag paste • Surface concentration of P atoms and dead layer thickness should be low enough to minimize Auger recombination and increase blue response20 An optimization of emitter quality is therefore not a straightforward task, as the requirements listed above point in different directions.
18 Schematic visualization of the different stages during POCl3 diffusion with varying gas flows. , 2012). , 2011) can be improved with these findings. , 2013a) led to significant improvement of Voc, jsc, and η of standard industrial Cz solar cells with full area Al-BSF. , 2013b). 2. 22 A selective emitter allows decoupling of the metallized and nonmetallized emitter areas. While the contacted area via screen-printing a high doping concentration at the surface and a deep emitter is beneficial because of the resulting lower contact resistance and the wide firing window, the nonmetallized areas need a lower doping level at the surface resulting in less (Auger) recombination and better surface passivation.
In addition, it uses only existing technologies and has been commercialized by Gebr. Schmid. As this approach of forming a selective emitter currently has the largest market share of the technologies described in this section (Gabor, 2012), some more information will be given. , etching-back to the same Psurf of 2 Â 1020 per cmÀ3 resulting in different values for Rsheet. Data from Book et al. (2009). 21 Different profiles with the same Rsheet after etch-back for different starting values (see Book, 2014).
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3, by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber