By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four presents worthy details at the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our power provide method to extra effective, renewable energies.
The quantity discusses the subject from a world standpoint, proposing the newest details on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.
It covers all elements of this significant semiconductor expertise, reflecting at the large and dynamic advances which have been made in this subject given that 1975, while the 1st e-book on sunlight cells-written via Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now well-known sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.
Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and quick medical improvement that results in the mandatory cost and price savings in worldwide commercial mass-production.
- Written via top, across the world recognized specialists on his topic
- Provides an in-depth evaluation of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
- Discusses the demanding situations confronted in the course of the transformation of our strength provide process to extra effective, renewable energies
- Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog
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The amount of melt remains constant; the crucible and the melt level stay at a fixed position. This bears a great advantage: the dopant concentration in the melt and in the ingot can be controlled perfectly. Ingots with uniform axial resistivity profiles can be grown, even for dopants with small segregation coefficients. In particular for n-type material or for galliumdoped ingots, this is highly interesting. Furthermore, since the melt volume is kept relatively small, the energy to keep it at growth temperature is less than it is the case for a fully loaded 2400 crucible with some 100–200 kg of liquid silicon in it.
For silicon, the needle-eye technique is in use, where the feed rod and the growing crystal are connected by a liquid bridge only, with a diameter much smaller than the crystal or the feed rod (Fig. 22). The inductor is sitting between the feed and the crystal (would the bridge freeze, the inductor would be captured between feed and crystal; Fig. 23). 500 , depending on the anticipated crystal diameter. The outer diameter has to be slightly larger than the crystal to be grown and the feed to be molten, respectively.
To be used as an FZ feed rod, the polysilicon has to be straight, crack-free, and showing a smooth surface without popcorn structure. Before they go into the furnace, the rods are machined on a lathe to the following form: round, cylindrical diameter, a cone on one end (it will become the shoulder) and a groove on the other end (used for the feed rod holder; Fig. 26). After the mechanical machining, chemical etching of the surface is necessary. Etching is one reason why the rods have to be crack-free.
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4, by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber