By Olav Stokke
Overseas reduction has more and more turn into topic to political conditionality. within the Eighties a few associations made reduction based upon the recipient nations' financial coverage reforms. industry liberalisation used to be the first tool and goal. within the Nineties such conditionality was once introduced one step extra; relief was once now associated with political reforms, affecting recipient nations' governing structures, requiring democracy, human rights and 'good governance'. This quantity appears at those advancements and considers the conditionality regulations of a number of ecu relief donors. Such regulations also are thought of from recipient views, either from the 3rd global and Russia, and the problem can also be thought of from a ancient standpoint.
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The DAC members wished ‘to rely to the maximum extent on measures of positive support, but they also wish to be clear about the potential for negative measures affecting the volume and form o f their aid, in areas of serious and systematic violations of human rights and brutal reversals from democratisation, or when a complete lack of good governance renders efficient and effective aid impossible’ [OECD, 1993:8-9]. 23 AID A N D POLITICAL C ON DI TI ON ALI TY not go into the nuances and specifics involved, related to norms, Strategies to be applied, methods and modalities; nor should this be expected, given the context in vvhich they are made.
Several bilateral donors targeted part of their aid to vulnerable social groups, children, women or the poorest groups in general. In his address to the 1973 annual meeting of the World Bank in Nairobi, Robert McNamara, then President of the Bank, identified the poorest 40 per cent of the population as the target group. A revival of this concern, after the preoccupation with macro-economic structural adjustments in the 1980s, is reflected in the focus on human development in the 1990s, 16 C O R E I S S U E S A N D S T A T E OF TH E A R T driven by the United Nations Development Programme [UNDP, 1990, 1991, 7992].
The new concern with governance came much later. Most donors refer to the same basic policy components when defining ‘good governance’. The most systematic effort to explore the agenda and set the objectives has been made by the World Bank. This is not by coincidence; the Bank was in need of an explanation of the quite to this end: cuts in Indian defence spending have been demanded as a condition for the continuation of aid [Pedersen, 1993:102]. This condition is not entirely new; in the 1980s, several donors ended or reduced their aid to India because o f its nuclear programme.
Aid and Political Conditionality by Olav Stokke