By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)
Contents: creation to Thermodynamics Entropy, loose power and Chemical Equilibrium strategies response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy
4), the enthalpy change accompanying a reaction depends only on the initial and final states —not on the path taken. This is the basis of the experimental discovery of Hess*s Law of Constant Heat Summation (1840), which states that the overall heat change for a chemical reaction is the same whether it takes place in one or several stages, provided the temperature and either the pressure or the volume remain constant. This means that, to take an example, the heat of reaction for the reduction of haematite (Fe203) in the iron blast furnace might be calculated as follows: Oxygen is blown into the furnace, and carbon is charged with the haematite, the products being carbon dioxide and iron (say).
Oxygen is pumped into the bomb at up to 25 atm pressure, and the bomb is immersed in a calorimeter full of water—all enclosed in a constant temperature jacket. The change in temperature of the calorimeter after ignition of the bomb is measured, and the apparatus is calibrated using a substance of known heat of combustion or by an electrical method. Heats of reaction involving chlorine and nitrogen have also been determined by this method. Heat capacities can be determined by measuring the change in heat content of a substance when it is heated to an elevated temperature and dropped into a calorimeter in a constant temperature vessel.
9. When a spontaneous change takes place in a system, the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the total entropy change of the system and its surroundings is positive. 2 provides an opportunity to demonstrate that this leads to the experience that heat will flow from a hotter to a colder body but never in the reverse direction. Assuming the transfer of heat from the ingots to the materials of construction of the soaking pit is negligible, any heat transfer considered must be exclusively between the two ingots.
An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy by R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)