By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy
A number of mixtures of commercially to be had applied sciences may well tremendously decrease gas intake in passenger autos, sport-utility automobiles, minivans, and different light-duty autos with no compromising motor vehicle functionality or defense. evaluate of applied sciences for bettering mild accountability motor vehicle gas financial system estimates the capability gasoline mark downs and prices to shoppers of accessible expertise combos for 3 varieties of engines: spark-ignition gas, compression-ignition diesel, and hybrid. in line with its estimates, adopting the total blend of more suitable applied sciences in medium and massive automobiles and pickup vehicles with spark-ignition engines may well decrease gasoline intake via 29 percentage at an extra fee of $2,200 to the shopper. changing spark-ignition engines with diesel engines and elements might yield gas reductions of approximately 37 percentage at an further expense of roughly $5,900 in line with automobile, and changing spark-ignition engines with hybrid engines and elements would cut back gas intake via forty three percentage at a rise of $6,000 according to car. The ebook makes a speciality of gasoline consumption--the volume of gas fed on in a given riding distance--because strength discounts are without delay relating to the quantity of gasoline used. by contrast, gas economic system measures how a long way a car will go back and forth with a gallon of gas. simply because gas intake info point out cash stored on gas purchases and discounts in carbon dioxide emissions, the ebook unearths that automobile stickers should still offer shoppers with gas intake information as well as gasoline economic climate details.
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Extra info for Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles
Economies of Scale Scale economies describe the tendency for average manufacturing costs to decrease with increasing volume, as fixed costs are distributed over a greater number of units produced. The automobile industry is characterized by large economies of scale. Although sources differ, full scale economies are generally considered to be reached at between 100,000 and 500,000 units per year. Martec Group, Inc. (2008a), for example, asserts that production efficiencies are maximized at 250,000 to 300,000 units.
As engine speed increases, the combustion interval in the crank-angle domain also increases and thus delays the end of combustion. This late end of combustion delays burnout of the particulates that are the last to form, subjecting these particulates to thermal quenching. The consequence of this quenching process is that particulate emissions become problematic at engine speeds well below those associated with peak power in SI engines. , power per unit of displacement) of CI diesel engines. While power density gets much attention, torque density in many ways is more relevant.
Thus converting the tractive energy into fuel consumption is best done using a detailed step-by-step simulation. This simulation is usually carried out by breaking down the test schedule into 1-second intervals, computing the ETR for each interval using detailed engine maps along with transmission characterizations, and adding up the interval values to get the totals for the drive cycle analyzed. Such a simulation is frequently called a full system simulation, FSS. The discussion above on tractive energy highlights the fact that the effects of the three principal aspects of vehicle design—vehicle mass, rolling resistance, and aerodynamic drag—can be used to calculate precisely the amount of energy needed to propel the vehicle for any kind of drive schedule.
Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy