By Junhua (Alex) Tao, Romas Joseph Kazlauskas
This ebook describes contemporary growth in enzyme-driven eco-friendly syntheses of industrially very important molecules. the 1st 3 introductory chapters evaluate contemporary technological advances in enzymes and cell-based ameliorations, and eco-friendly chemistry metrics for man made potency. the remainder chapters are directed to case reviews in biotechnological creation of prescription drugs (small molecules, traditional items and biologics), flavors, perfume and cosmetics, tremendous chemical compounds, value-added chemical substances from glucose and biomass, and polymeric materials.The ebook is aimed to facilitate the commercial functions of this robust and rising eco-friendly know-how, and catalyze the development of the expertise itself.
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Extra resources for Biocatalysis for Green Chemistry and Chemical Process Development
Pharma applications still represent the largest group of industrially relevant peptides, with about 50 peptide drugs approved currently on the market; in addition, 400 compounds are in different phases of clinical development . 5 billion (excluding insulin), with an annual demand approaching 1500 kg. These numbers illustrate the importance of economically and ecologically sound peptide synthesis processes! In principle, therapeutic peptides can be made using a number of different technologies.
Indian partner Dr. Reddy’s. Fondaparinux is a typical example of how chemistry, with a broad and applicable toolbox developed over the last 200 years, was able to deliver the first-generation process. Heparin and its derivatives could possibly be synthesized enzymatically . Biotechnology has, however, failed to deliver a cheaper and more ecological alternative, although the development of alternative pentasaccharides began in the early 1980s. The first chemical synthesis of the Fondaparinux consisted of over 60 steps, but has been reduced to 55 steps from naturally occurring carbohydrates.
The concept of the synthesis process is still based on the four-step solid-phase phosphoramidite approach first described by Beaucage and OLIGONUCLEOTIDES 35 Caruthers  in 1981. Optimized in different aspects (reagents, solid supports, and synthesizer design) over the years, this remarkable chemistry turns out to be highly efficient in terms of overall and step yields and process times (about 80 chemical reactions in less than 24 h), and it is very robust and highly generic to all different types of target oligonucleotides.
Biocatalysis for Green Chemistry and Chemical Process Development by Junhua (Alex) Tao, Romas Joseph Kazlauskas