By Antonio Violante, Pan Ming Huang, Geoffrey M. Gadd
Written by means of a multidisciplinary team of soil and environmental scientists, Biophysico-Chemical techniques of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments presents the medical neighborhood with a serious qualitative and quantitative overview of the basics of the strategies of pollution in soil environments. The publication covers pollution' speciation, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity, and affects on improvement of leading edge recovery suggestions. furthermore, the advance of leading edge remediation options for polluted soils is roofed.
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Additional resources for Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments (Wiley Series Sponsored by IUPAC in Biophysico-Chemical Processes in Environmental Systems)
There may be a combination of biochemical and surface-mediated reactions during the process. Bacteria surface layers may positively adsorb and indirectly serve as a nucleation template. Bacteria can also more directly initiate mineral precipitation by producing reactive compounds such as enzymes, siderophores, metallothioneins, which bind metals or catalyze their transformations. , 1997; Douglas and Beveridge, 1998). , 2002). Reactive inorganic ligands such as sulÞde and phosphate may also be produced as cellular metabolic by-products.
5 Source: Jokic et al. (2004). The Maillard reaction and the polyphenol transformation model are considered as separate signiÞcant pathways for the formation of humic substances. In nature, however, it is likely that these two pathways do not occur separately, but rather, interact closely with each other, since sugar, amino acids, and polyphenols coexist in soil solutions and natural waters. Jokic et al. 2). The promoting effect of δ-MnO2 on a system consisting of carbohydrate, amino acid, and polyphenol is a complex process involving mineral surface sorption and condensation.
To date, there are considerable gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms of the effect of fungi on the transformation and uptake of metals and metalloids. 9. BIOMINERALIZATION OF METALS AND METALLOIDS AND FINE-GRAINED MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Microbial biomineralization, the formation of minerals by microorganisms, is another important activity of microorganisms (Beveridge, 1989). , 2002). Most biominerals generated by microorganisms are nanoparticles (BanÞeld and Zhang, 2001). , 1993). A central tenet of biomineralization is that the nucleation, growth, morphology, and aggregation (assembly) of the inorganic crystals are regulated by organized assemblies of organic macromolecules, the organic matrix.
Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments (Wiley Series Sponsored by IUPAC in Biophysico-Chemical Processes in Environmental Systems) by Antonio Violante, Pan Ming Huang, Geoffrey M. Gadd