By Rebecca M. Jordan-Young
Male and female brains are assorted, because of hormones coursing during the mind earlier than start. That's taught as truth in psychology textbooks, educational journals, and bestselling books. And those hardwired changes clarify every thing from sexual orientation to gender id, to why there aren't extra girls physicists or extra stay-at-home dads.
In this compelling ebook, Rebecca Jordan-Young takes at the facts that intercourse changes are hardwired into the mind. interpreting almost all released learn that helps the claims of "human mind association theory," Jordan-Young finds how frequently those reports fail the factors of technology. no matter if cautious researchers indicate the bounds in their personal reports, different researchers and newshounds can simply forget about them simply because mind association concept simply sounds so correct. but when a sequence of methodological weaknesses, questionable assumptions, inconsistent definitions, and large gaps among ambiguous findings and grand conclusions have amassed over the years, then technological know-how isn't clinical at all.
Elegantly written, this publication argues passionately that the research of gender ameliorations merits way more rigorous, biologically subtle technological know-how. "The facts for hormonal intercourse differentiation of the human mind higher resembles a hodge-podge pile than a fantastic structure...Once we have now cleared the rubble, we will be able to start to construct more moderen, extra medical tales approximately human development."
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Extra info for Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences
Instead, brain organization theory is used to explain a very wide range of differences related to gender and sexuality—in humans these include everything from spatial relations, verbal ability, or math aptitude, to Brain Storm p 22 a tendency to display nurturing behaviors, to sexual orientation. Still, at its heart this is a story about development of sexuality. William Young and his junior colleagues considered their research preliminary when they reported it in 1959, but they were spurred to publish it because they considered their studies to be “so much more in line with current thought in the area of gonadal hormones and sexual differentiation” of the genitalia and reproductive system “than the earlier experiments on behavior” (Phoenix et al.
Articles and conference reports from the period indicate that both research groups hedged their bets in comparing their own evidence with the opposing theory: Young and his colleagues repeatedly mentioned that they accepted the importance of learning and experience in shaping behavior (Young, Goy, and Phoenix 1965), and Money routinely asserted his appreciation of the principles of phylogeny—the evolution-derived perspective that predicts continuity between developmental processes in humans and those observed in other animals (Money 1965a, 1965b).
In particular, I will not presume that gender is the result of social relations, because to do so would be to discount the studies I review at the outset. Nor, however, will I presume that (bodily) sex is simply given by nature and is not a result of socially inﬂected classiﬁcations and commitments. Finally, I will not presume that sexuality, the realm of pleasures and desires and practices as well as erotic self-concept, ﬂows neatly from either the exigencies of reproduction or the structure of masculinity and femininity.
Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences by Rebecca M. Jordan-Young