Read e-book online Breaking Into New Markets: Emerging Lessons for Export PDF

By Richard Newfarmer, William Shaw, Peter Walkenhorst

ISBN-10: 0821376373

ISBN-13: 9780821376379

ISBN-10: 0821376381

ISBN-13: 9780821376386

Because the Fifties while nations turned involved that specialization in fundamental items might result in regular falls within the paying for strength of basic exports and sluggish progress, diversifying out of basic items into manufactures has been an incredible coverage goal of constructing nations. certainly, considering that that point, constructing nations in general became extra various, yet many low source of revenue international locations stay depending on a slim diversity of basic items. New questions touching on export diversification have emerged within the fresh literature and with vital coverage implications: Is export diversification a common structural end result of the expansion method itself, or can nations speed up development via energetic realization to diversifying exports? What are the most constraints that hinder nations from diversifying is it industry disasters that result in deepest underinvestment in efforts to arrive new export markets or is it linked to different marketplace disasters? What guidelines are best suited for international locations to advertise diversification and may governments search to stimulate export items with specific features? This e-book explores new considering and proof approximately export diversification, and elaborates on regulations to advertise diversification. The papers during this e-book are written as brief, coverage targeted chapters that digest frequently longer, extra educational papers as a way to cause them to available to a bigger coverage and non-technical viewers. In that feel, it's a coverage primer: what export diversification can and can't do for progress, and the way to make it ensue.

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Extra resources for Breaking Into New Markets: Emerging Lessons for Export Diversification

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Major avenues toward increasing export diversification in the countries she studied include the following: • Improving information transparency, which is particularly important for new exporters, who typically encounter discrimination in the provision of public support for exporting in the Middle East and North Africa • Reducing the cost of experimentation through strengthening the national innovation system, including business incubators, technology parks for more mature firms, technology support services (although the 12 BRENTON, NEWFARMER, SHAW, AND WALKENHORST quality of many existing service providers is low), and stronger links between research centers and firms • Improving the supply of financial services to risky, innovative firms; such financial services may include business-angel networks, provision of mixed debt and equity financing, and government support in facilitating access to bank financing for risky ventures, such as innovation-oriented credit guarantee schemes and assistance to small firms in dealing with commercial banks • Addressing coordination failures through clusters and networks, including encouraging local producers to link into international production chains and making use of the diaspora • Improving export promotion by emphasizing new activities, targeting market failures, subsidizing activities with spillover and demonstration effects, incorporating sunset clauses for all subsidy activities, rewarding rather than picking winners, and bundling support (research and development, product development, design, management process, and upscaling to marketing).

5); and foreign direct investment (FDI), that is, services trade under mode 3 (commercial presence), has been even more dynamic. The ongoing trend of outsourcing back office and information technology functions to take advantage of advanced skills and lower labor costs of specialized service providers has opened new export paths for a growing number of developing countries. Most of the contracting-out is still undertaken with companies in the country of origin (“onshoring”), but cross-border arrangements (“offshoring”) have become increasingly common.

The poor integration in the domestic economy of foreign-owned firms that often carry out a large share of export-oriented activities seems to be another issue, and econometric analysis shows that for developing countries, the services exports–GDP growth nexus is indeed weaker than for developed countries (Gabriele 2006). Also, many services, such as telecommunications, require specialized distribution networks that give rise to natural monopolies or oligopolies. Liberalization then calls for procompetitive regulation or independent regulators to ensure equal access to established networks.

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Breaking Into New Markets: Emerging Lessons for Export Diversification by Richard Newfarmer, William Shaw, Peter Walkenhorst

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