By Julia C Devlin
This crucial publication surveys significant monetary matters within the improvement of nations within the heart East and North Africa (MENA) quarter seeing that global struggle II. It stories the major demanding situations dealing with the area in relocating in the direction of larger industry orientation and integration with the worldwide economic system. It additionally includes a dialogue of instruments and strategies utilized by improvement practitioners and in short examines problems with reduction effectiveness. themes coated contain styles of development, financial reform innovations, the function of OPEC and oil in improvement, water shortage and agricultural guidelines, inhabitants, schooling options, exertions markets and unemployment, exchange, nearby integration and migration, the funding weather, monetary industry improvement, gender, poverty concerns and the effect of clash.
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Extra info for Challenges of Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa Region (World Science Studies in International Economics)
This is also a challenge to MENA countries. Vertical income inequality refers to the distribution of income across individuals and households; horizontal income inequality, is more difficult to measure and is based on differences in income across groups in society, on the basis of religion, class, gender, race, and others, with generally restricted mobility between groups. In general, among the most critical factors 90 % Population Living on < $1/day (1981) % Population Living on < $2/day (1981) 80 % Population Living on < $1/day (2004) % Population Living on < $2/day (2004) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America Middle East & & Caribbean North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Source: World Bank (2007) World Development Indicators.
31. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. World Bank (2007a). World Development Indicators, p. 31. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. World Bank (2007b). Economic Developments and Prospects. Job Creation in an Era of High Growth. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. World Bank (2008). World Development Indicators, Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. qxd 12/22/2009 10:52 AM Page 39 Chapter TWO State Formation, Consolidation, and Development, 1960s–1980s or the first 20 years following independence, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies achieved high income growth and spectacular gains in human welfare.
In the post-WWII period, the MENA region like other developing countries, experienced high rates of growth on the basis of rapid increases in capital accumulation and through the 1960s, at least, high rates of productivity growth. Much of this was an accelerated growth catch-up facilitated by high rates of investment and imports of capital equipment. As early as the 1970s, however, despite continued high rates of capital accumulation, the productivity of these investments was clearly deteriorating and the external environment was changing.
Challenges of Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa Region (World Science Studies in International Economics) by Julia C Devlin