By Yannick Le Tiec
Microelectronics is a posh global the place many sciences have to collaborate to create nano-objects: we want services in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics additionally crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, in addition to biology, biochemistry and drugs. Chemistry is concerned about many fields from fabrics, chemical substances, gases, beverages or salts, the fundamentals of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleansing of surfaces and selective etching of particular layers. additionally, over contemporary many years, the dimensions of the transistors has been tremendously diminished whereas the performance of circuits has elevated. This ebook involves 5 chapters masking the chemical compounds and sequences utilized in processing, from cleansing to etching, the function and influence in their purity, in addition to the fabrics utilized in “Front finish Of the road” which corresponds to the guts and function of person transistors, then relocating directly to the “Back finish Of the road” that's concerning the interconnection of all of the transistors. ultimately, the necessity for particular functionalization additionally calls for key wisdom on floor remedies and chemical administration to permit new applications.
1. Chemistry within the “Front finish of the road” (FEOL): Deposits, Gate Stacks, Epitaxy and Contacts, François Martin, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Véronique Carron and Yannick Le Tiec.
2. Chemistry in Interconnects, Vincent Jousseaume, Paul-Henri Haumesser, Carole Pernel, Jeffery Butterbaugh, Sylvain Maîtrejean and Didier Louis.
3. The Chemistry of rainy floor guidance: cleansing, Etching and Drying, Yannick Le Tiec and Martin Knotter.
4. The Use and administration of Chemical Fluids in Microelectronics, Christiane Gottschalk, Kevin Mclaughlin, Julie Cren, Catherine Peyne and Patrick Valenti.
5. floor Functionalization for Micro- and Nanosystems: software to Biosensors, Antoine Hoang, Gilles Marchand, Guillaume Nonglaton, Isabelle Texier-Nogues and Francoise Vinet.
About the Authors
Yannick Le Tiec is a technical professional at CEA-Leti, Minatec for the reason that 2002. he's a CEA-Leti assignee at IBM, Albany (NY) to increase the complex 14 nm CMOS node and the FDSOI expertise. He held various technical positions from the complex three hundred mm SOI CMOS pilot line to diversified assignments inside of SOITEC for complex wafer improvement and later inside of INES to optimize sunlight cellphone ramp-up and yield. He has been a part of the ITRS entrance finish technical operating crew at ITRS when you consider that 2008.
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Additional info for Chemistry in Microelectronics
Depending on the starting configuration, two strategies may be used to obtain Si surfaces free of oxide. e. a thin layer of Si/thermal buried layer of SiO2/Si substrate stack, usually fabricated using the Smart CutTM technique [BRU 95]). 8 to 1 nm layer of native or chemical SiO2, which is initially present on the surface and smooth it [BEN 94]. The term chemical oxide is meant to design the oxide that is created by oxidizing wet cleanings such as RCA or dynamic diluted clean (DDC) [TAR 99, ROU 02], which remove surface particles, organic and metallic contaminants.
When the H2 bake temperature increases, the same type of surface roughening has clearly been shown for thick epitaxial layers of Ge grown directly on Si (001) and then Chemistry in the FEOL 29 polished [CLA 06]. The optimal compromises are, for virtual SiGe substrates, shorter H2 bakes (15 s) at 850°C, and for thick layers of Ge on Si (001), H2 bakes at 750°C for 2 min. For these two types of stacks, the “HFLast” (where HF is hydrofluoric acid) wet cleaning used prior to H2 bake and epitaxy must also be optimized.
This layer contains implanted argon atoms as well as contaminants such as oxygen, fluoride or carbon. It will induce kinetic modifications to the nickel diffusion and during the first silicidation steps will favor the apparition of Ni3Si2 rather than Ni2Si. On a blanket substrate, this change in the sequence has little influence in fine on the texture and resistivity of the monosilicide [IMB 07]. However, it negatively impacts the yield of the electrical devices [BON 07]. – Surface preparation by reactive plasma.
Chemistry in Microelectronics by Yannick Le Tiec