By Janos Ginsztler, R.P. Skelton
Failure prevention, residual existence evaluate and existence extension of fabrics in elements working at excessive temperatures have gotten more and more very important difficulties within the glossy energy plant undefined. those difficulties are coated, and business examples could be brought to demonstrate the purposes of these matters lined utilizing the consequences from provider records.
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Extra info for Component Reliability under Creep-Fatigue Conditions
11\ ~ ~-,-;:r· ~ l 1(1 ' 1. ~- - "' 1 .. _ _ __L __ •t~ ~ ·~ \ Fig. P. 4 Service Exposure Surprisingly, when plotted on a total strain range basis, the endurance of service-exposed materials lies within the scatter band of virgin material. This has been demonstrated for material taken from a 316 steel turbine valve which had been in operation for 130,000 h at -600°C subsequently tested at 650°C . A similar effect was found in rotor material exposed to 536°C for 134, 000 h, subsequently tested at 566°C, see Fig.
8. ;t l""~ i ~11";\ul k ~ .. :u r ;Hl' :5o -·c. . . ' "''" ~(l :~ :"'i' .. lain- Fig. 3 Effect of Temperature It is generally observed that an increase in temperature gives rise to a reduction in endurance. In ferritic steels for example the reduction factor is about 4 over the temperature range ambient - 550°C. The same factor applies to austenitic steels up to 850°C, see Fig. 8  . As a rule of thumb, the effect is small in most steels when the change is limited to about I00°C . ," A •· .
FERRITIC I 20,-----------------------~ ---- 10 u i"' . ,..!! w 9CrMoV Vl "',.. ·/I I I Radial Distance. m MW/min Fig. 8 Geometry effect for given transient  Fig. P. Skelt0n Surface stresses generated by very severe shocks are dominated by the heat transfer coefficient and are independent of the term k, whilst mild shocks must also take component thickness into account. This has been examined by Rees . In the case of a header of fixed outer diameter 455 mm, four materials were considered in a replacement design, namely one austenitic alloy (Esshete 1250) and three ferritic alloys (9CrMoV, 12CrMoV and 2114Cr1Mo).
Component Reliability under Creep-Fatigue Conditions by Janos Ginsztler, R.P. Skelton