By Timo Pukkala, Klaus von Gadow
Even if the vast majority of the world’s wooded area ecosystems are ruled by means of uneven-sized multi-species stands, wooded area administration perform and thought has enthusiastic about the advance of plantation monocultures to maximise the provision of trees at least expensive. Societal expectancies are altering, despite the fact that, and uneven-aged multi-species ecosystems, selectively controlled as non-stop conceal Forestry (CCF), are frequently believed to be stronger to monocultures in addressing quite a lot of expectancies. This publication provides methods that are correct to CCF administration and making plans: analysing wooded area buildings, silvicultural and making plans, financial review, in keeping with examples in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South the USA.
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If harvesting costs are ignored, the profitability of a clearfelling system is inevitably lower than in gradual selective cuttings. The way in which harvesting costs depend on the removed volume and size of removed trees determines whether the economies of scale associated with clearfelling compensate for the inoptimality losses associated with a simultaneous cutting of all trees. 26 Fig. 10 The optimal time to harvest a tree is when its relative value increment falls below the rate of interest in financial market (or slightly earlier since the opportunity cost of land and the effect of removal on the growth of remaining trees should be taken into account).
10). This gives the forest owner the possibility to maximize the sum of profits generated by the forest and other investments. This kind of “precision-silviculture” is not possible in even-aged forestry where all trees are removed simultaneously. If the relative value increment is not exactly the same in all trees, clearfelling means cutting some trees too early and some trees too late as compared to the optimal timing (Chap. 5). If harvesting costs are ignored, the profitability of a clearfelling system is inevitably lower than in gradual selective cuttings.
Large pines are the best survivors, which means that natural forests may contain very large and very old pines. Compared to the clearfellings of the current RFM, the major disturbances occurring in natural forests are less frequent and less severe. In near-natural forestry, the type, geographical scale and interval between cuttings should all resemble the natural disturbance dynamics. Since disturbances vary in severity, interval and area, all these variations should also be integrated into the forest management systems.
Continuous Cover Forestry (Managing Forest Ecosystems) by Timo Pukkala, Klaus von Gadow