By Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz
Preface to the 1st .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have continuously been intere ted in
errors produced by means of second-language inexperienced persons, both of their speech or
writing or either. actually, beginners' mistakes were the topic of
extensive research and heated controveL y for particularly an extended time.
There were significant methods to the examine of learner ' errors .
namely Contrasti ve research and blunder Analysis.
The author's central purpose in penning this publication has been to
provide a textual content for the Contrasti\'c and blunder research path now
widely taught on the uni versity point in Iran. The formerly used
material for this path didn't hide many elements of errors Analy i
which are handled within the current publication. The e-book is usually meant to
provide working towards academics with insights into the character and kinds of
errors, with which they must deal of their day-by-day profes ional life.
The fabric during this ebook is predicated at the author's lectures on
Contrastive and blunder research at significant universities in Tehran. It has
been labored out over numerous years and has confirmed to be satisfactory
and profitable. makes an attempt were made to give the material
systematically. it's strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the instructing and studying of the fabric tender and easy.
It is was hoping that this booklet, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive angle in the direction of mistakes, either at the a part of educators and
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Additional resources for Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis
However, five different steps have been mentioned in the literature for comparing and contrasting two languages, or two subsystems for that matter. These are explained below. 1. Selection It must be realized that a comprehensive comparison of two languages for pedagogical purposes is neither feasible nor necessary. Therefore, the analyst should select certain features of the target language that may potentially cause difficulty for the learners and then compare and contrast those features with parallel features in the learners' native language.
Was reflected in the ... .. ... methodology guides in the sixties. 4. The 'weak' version is a model with ........ and ........... as opposed to the ... .... claim of the 'strong' version. 5. By . . description contrastive linguists implied that the two languages should be described through the same ....... .... or framework. 6. Linguistic features of the two languages are compared on three levels: .... ..... , ......... , and . . ... of fonns. 7. Hierarchy of difficulty refers to the .
For example, how the two languages handle language functions such as request, compliment, apology, and the like. This kind of analysis is called contrastive pragmatics. Transfer of pragmatic features can, indeed, be more important than the transfer of grammatical or lexical items of the learner's MT. , breakdown in communication], and to the judgment that the speaker is in some way being impolite" (p. 231 ). In other words, the linguistic choices appropriate in one language may not be appropriate in another language, and this may result in communication breakdown between EFL learners and native speakers of English.
Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis by Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz