By Francisco Sagasti, Gonzalo Alcalde
Publication via Sagasti, Francisco, Alcalde, Gonzalo
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Extra info for Development Cooperation in a Fractured Global Order: An Arduous Transition
The recently enlarged North Atlantic Treaty Organization began a bombing campaign in early 1999 that threatens to escalate and might become a protracted exercise with unforeseen consequences for European and international security. New threats to national and international security have now emerged, often resulting from the actions of nonstate actors and so-called rogue states. We are witnessing an increase in, and the convergence of, criminal and terrorist activities: "Previously distinct issues — proliferation, terrorism, arms control, and organized crime — are now merging; the roles of organized crime and foreign corruption are especially neglected by most policy analysts who work on the proliferation issue" (Sopko 1996-97, p.
It has been argued that although it is easy for the multilateral organizations to impose this type of external conditionality on the poorest countries, as they have few alternatives for development financing, it is unlikely to work. Rather, what is needed is more indigenous "ownership" of policies, along with local approaches to development work, rather than having governments — and societies — carrying out programs they do not believe in and have never participated in designing (Helleiner 1997).
Although the divide between poverty and affluence has proven to be one of the most enduring and alarming features of the international economic order, the gap between rich and poor has also been increasing significantly in the industrialized nations in recent years. The case of the United States illustrates this clearly. Between 1950 and 1978, the poorest 20% of the United States population increased its income by 140%, whereas that of the richest 20% increased by 99%. However, between 1977 and 1994, the poorest 20% lost ground and its income was reduced by 16%, whereas that of the richest 20% increased by 25%.
Development Cooperation in a Fractured Global Order: An Arduous Transition by Francisco Sagasti, Gonzalo Alcalde