By Florian Coulmas
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Extra resources for Direct and Indirect Speech
Introduction Direct speech and indirect speech are similar, yet different. " (2) John said (that) he was tired. Let us first observe the similarities between (1) and (2). Both have the same verb, "said" with the same subject, "John". Each contains a clause signalling the content of a speech act. Although the two clauses are different in form, they both convey the same message. Thus, at first sight, the similarities between (1) and (2) appear so striking that early transformationalists were motivated to propose that (2) should be derived from (1) via an optional transformation called the "Indirect Discourse Formation".
In an indirect quote, the speaker normally uses himself/herself as a spatial point of reference and the time of utterance as a temporal point of reference. In a direct quote, the speaker must suspend the normal practice and use the points of reference of the quoted speaker. 3. Syntactic and semantic role An indirect quote is traditionally assumed to be a subordinate clause serving as the direct object of the verb of saying. Partee (1973) suggested that the direct quote is not a syntactic or semantic part of the sentence containing it, but did not question the subordinate clause role of the indirect quote.
Quasi-direct discourse is thus to some extent grammaticised in French (cf. Fonagy in this volume). The great variety of features that characterize reported speech across languages leaves us with the question of whether any of them need to be coded in the grammar of every language. To be sure, certain mechanisms and features peculiar to reported speech are explicitly coded in the Reported speech 23 grammar of many languages. Especially the use of pronouns is subject to seemingly rigid conditions (cf.
Direct and Indirect Speech by Florian Coulmas