By Guy Echalier
At present Drosophila is a dominant experimental version in developmental biology and in gene legislation in eukaryotes. This quantity summarizes a few thirty years of expertise within the dealing with of in vitro cultured Drosophila cells. Its major emphasis is on gene move technique, cellphone responses to warmth surprise, hormonal legislation of genes, and at the expression and mobility of transposable parts. Key positive factors * a few thirty years of expertise in dealing with in vitro cultured Drosophila cells * cellphone cultures which supply fabric for a multiplicity of biochemical methods * DNA-mediated gene move as an irreplaceable software for examining simple mechanisms of legislation * Drosophila cellphone traces which qualify them to be used in biotechnology
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Concentrations are expressed in mmol/liter for the hemolymph and mM/kg (fresh weight) for whole body extracts. ;' Glycine and serine. ' Lysine and arginine. '~ S e r i n e / a s p a r a g i n e / g l u t a m i n e . " Upper number = leucine. I In pupating larvae. Phosphoserine/cysteine. h Glutamine/asparagine. ' Phosphoserine/cysteine. i Tyrosine phosphate/glycerophosphate/ethanolamine. k Arginine/histidine/lysine. Lysine/ornithine. 12 1 Body Fluid Composition and Culture Media Desisn rapidly restoring the capacity for continuous flight (Wigglesworth, 1949).
One part added to nine parts of medium). Note [in Ashburner (1989)]: The amino acids are very close to their saturating concentrations. 8 may cause precipitation (this apparently varies between lots of amino acids). Some cell lines may increase the pH of the medium and cause precipitation. If this happens, routinely either drop the pH slightly or decrease amino acid concentration slightly. L. and P. 5 g/liter. is most often called C-IS in English publications, but, because the Cyrillic character "C" corresponds to our letter "S", I prefer to name it S-15.
0 (continues) III. 6 with 1 N NaOH; osmolarity, 250 mOsm. a From Wyss (1982a). XII shows a comparison of ionic concentrations, osmolarity, and pH of most published formulas, with regard to the physiological values of Drosophila larval hemolymph and the composition of a typical buffered saline for vertebrate cells. Despite the striking variability of their relative ionic proportions, most of those salines consist essentially of a mixture of three or four chlorides, generally buffered with bicarbonate, phosphates, or some organic buffer (Tris, HEPES).
Drosophila Cells in Culture by Guy Echalier