By William Joseph Burns
Gamal Abdel Nasser's 1955 choice to negotiate Egyptian cotton for Soviet bloc weaponry thrust Egypt onto heart degree within the chilly conflict within the heart East. What Egypt wanted such a lot, and what the U.S. was once uniquely built to supply, was once financial reduction. For the Egyptian government--eager to take fast strides towards financial improvement yet crippled by way of a burgeoning inhabitants, a paucity of arable land, and a meager reserve of international exchange--American financial relief promised to function an drastically very important crutch. For American policymakers, fiscal tips seemed to be a great technique of constructing American impact in Egypt.
Few reduction relationships within the final 3 a long time can fit the drama and value of the U.S.-Egyptian adventure. This learn indicates how the yank govt tried to take advantage of its fiscal relief software to urge or coerce Egypt to aid U.S. pursuits within the center East within the region century following the 1955 Czech-Egyptian palms contract. William J. Burns has analyzed lately published executive records and interviews with former policymakers to throw gentle at the use of relief as a device of yankee coverage towards the Nasser regime. He additionally bargains useful observations at the position of the yankee monetary tips software within the Sadat period.
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Additional info for Economic aid and American policy toward Egypt, 1955-1981
The notion of ''success" is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of American goals. Cancellation of Aswan aid may have saved the assistance program in Yugoslavia, and thus been successful in light of domestic and broader international aims, but it had a decidedly adverse effect on relations with the Nasser regime. No single aid policy can be assessed in isolation from its myriad side effects, both long-run and short-run. President Johnson's suspension of assistance to Nasser in 1965 may have staved off a Congressional revolt and contributed to a temporary modification of Egyptian policies, but in the long-run it probably reinforced Nasser's suspicions about the United States and deepened his hostility toward the Johnson Administration.
S. allies also had a voice in aid policy toward Egypt. Their complaints that Nasser was being rewarded for behavior that ran against the interests of loyal American allies were often a key factor in the calculations of American policymakers. One further distinction to be drawn when considering objectives is that between publicized and unpublicized goals. 7 At various times in the 1950s and 1960s, the American governmentwhether because of its own determination to clarify the issues for Nasser, domestic political concerns, perceived Cold War imperatives, or pressure from alliesmade the aims of its aid policy public.
William Joseph), 1956- Economic aid and American policy toward Egypt, 19551981. Bibliography: p. 263 1. Economic assistance, AmericanEgypt. 2. EgyptForeign relationsUnited States. 3. United StatesForeign relationsEgypt. I. Title. ) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Page v For Lisa and for my parents Page vii Contents Acknowledgments ix Foreword by Ambassador Hermann Frederick Eilts xi Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Farewell to Arms: The United States and Egypt's Search for Military Aid, 19521955 8 Chapter 2 Pacifying Nasser: The United States and the Aswan Dam, October 1955March 1956 36 Chapter 3 Punishing Nasser: The United States and the Aswan Dam, March 1956July 1956 76 Chapter 4 "Decent Interval": Aid Policy in the Twilight Years of the Eisenhower Era 108 Chapter 5 Kennedy's "Great Unseen Weapon": Food Aid and American Policy Toward Egypt, 19611963 121 Chapter 6 Johnson's "Short Leash": Food Aid and American Policy Toward Egypt, 19641967 149 Chapter 7 Sadat's "Peace Dividend" 174 Chapter 8 Retrospect and Prospect 200 Page viii Appendices 213 Notes 221 Selected Bibliography 263 Index 279 Page ix Acknowledgments This work would not have been possible without the kind support of a number of individuals and institutions.
Economic aid and American policy toward Egypt, 1955-1981 by William Joseph Burns