By Charles Harper
Digital fabrics are the particular semiconductors, plastics, metals and ceramics that make up the chips and applications from which we build today?s cellphones, palmtops, and PDAs. The change in purposes from desktops to smaller communications units has pushed the micro-miniaturization pattern in electronics, which in flip has created a brand new set of demanding situations in developing fabrics to fulfill their necessities. . . This re-creation, the 1st replace of the instruction manual due to the fact 1993, is an entire rewrite, reflecting the nice significance of engineering fabrics for thermal administration and suppleness and micro-miniature sizes. This new guide might be a useful device to someone operating digital packaging, fabrication, or meeting design.. . (20031101)
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6 Chapter 2 characteristics of resultant polymer (low or semiviscous liquid, friable or rigid solid) may limit one’s choice. The interested reader is referred to any basic organic polymer chemistry text for more detailed descriptions. 1 Bulk polymerization. From the point of view of equipment, complexity, and economics, the simplest method is mass or bulk polymerization. This procedure merely allows the monomer to react at a predetermined reaction temperature, with or without catalysts, to form the polymer.
As more and more chips are required to operate at higher frequencies, the current aluminum metallization can no longer meet the lower resistances needed to prevent data processing delays. As a result, copper has started to replace aluminum because of its lower resistance and reduced electromigration problems. 6 Passivation. The passivation layer is deposited at the end of the chip metallization process and is used to protect the aluminum interconnecting circuitry from moisture and contamination.
The images of the various semiconductor element layers are formed on reticles or photomasks made of glass, which are then transferred to a photoresist material on the surface of the silicon wafer. The resist may be of a type that changes its structure and properties to either UV light or laser. If it is a negative-acting photoresist, the areas that are exposed to UV light polymerize (harden) and thus are insoluble during development, whereas the unexposed areas are washed away. This results in a negative image of the photomask being formed in the photoresist.
Electronic Materials and Processes Handbook by Charles Harper