By William G.I. Davenport, Matthew J. King, Mark E. Schlesinger, A.K. Biswas
This re-creation has been largely revised and up-to-date because the third version released in 1994. It includes an excellent better intensity of commercial info, focussing on how copper steel is extracted from ore and scrap, and the way this extraction should be made extra effective. glossy excessive depth smelting methods are offered intimately, particularly flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. huge cognizance is paid to the keep watch over of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. fresh advancements in electrorefining, quite stainless-steel cathode know-how are tested. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated including their influence upon optimizing mineral source usage. The ebook demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is a vital resource of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality controls can also be mentioned and the ebook comprises a major part on extraction economics. every one bankruptcy is through a precis of options formerly defined and provides instructed additional studying and references.
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Extra resources for Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, 4th edition
3. World production of copper in 1999, kilotonnes of contained copper (USGS, 2002a). Smelting and refining include primary (concentrate) and secondary (scrap) smelting and refining. Electrowon production accounted for about 20% of total mine production. ,,. =. 4. Principal primary smelters of the world. The numbers correspond to those in Fig. 2. The type of smelting furnace is: F: Outokumpu flash furnace; T: Teniente furnace; N: Noranda Furnace; M: Mitsubishi system; IF: Inco flash furnace; IS: Isasmelt furnace; R: reverberatory furnace; S; shaft furnace; E: electric furnace; V: Vanyukov furnace; K: Kivcet furnace.
Other impurities such as As, Bi, Fe, Ni and Sb are partially or fully soluble. 3 volt). They must, however, be kept from accumulating in the electrolyte to avoid physical contamination of the cathode copper. This is done by continuously bleeding part of the electrolyte through a purification circuit. 3 Hydrometallurgical Extraction of Copper About 80% of copper-from-ore is obtained by flotation, smelting and refining. The other 20% is obtained hydrometallurgically. Hydrometallurgical extraction entails: (a) sulfuric acid leaching of Cu from broken or crushed ore to produce impure Cu-bearing aqueous solution (b) transfer of Cu from this impure solution to pure, high-Cu electrolyte via solvent extraction (c) electroplating pure cathode copper from this pure electrolyte.
The highest-grade scrap (mainly manufacturing waste) is often melted and cast without refining. g. tube, sheet and alloys. Alloy scrap (brass, bronze) is melted and cast as alloy. There is no advantage to smelting/refining it to pure copper. Some slagging is done during melting to remove dirt and other contaminants. 6 Summary About 80% of the world's copper-from ore is produced by concentration/ smelting/refining of sulfide ores. The other 20% is produced by heap leaching/solvent extraction/electrowinning of'oxide' and chalcocite ores.
Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, 4th edition by William G.I. Davenport, Matthew J. King, Mark E. Schlesinger, A.K. Biswas