By John Brown
The Foseco Ferrous Foundryman's instruction manual is a realistic reference publication for all these desirous about making castings in any of the widely used alloys, by means of any of the standard moulding equipment. foreign SI devices are used all through, yet in just about all circumstances conversions to the extra known Metric and Imperial devices are given. anywhere attainable, Casting Alloy necessities comprise identical necessities for numerous nations in addition to overseas requirements. person chapters hide the casting of sunshine alloys, copper-based alloys, every kind of cast iron and metal. for every staff of alloys,specifications and average functions are defined, including info of melting perform, steel therapy and casting perform. Sand moulding fabrics, together with eco-friendly sand and chemically bonded sands also are integrated.
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Additional resources for Foseco Ferrous Foundryman's Handbook, Eleventh Edition
Inches) Water cooled? 0 Tapping temp. 0 900 1100 1500 2000 1000 1800 1800 1800 1200 4000 yes yes 363 180 500 400 300 300 200 x x x x x x x From: Coke consumption in iron foundry cupolas, Energy of Consumption Guide 7, November 1990, reproduced by permission of the Energy Efficiency Office of the Department of the Environment. 48 Foseco Ferrous Foundryman’s Handbook Fluxes Fluxes are added to the cupola charge to form a fluid slag which may easily be tapped from the cupola. The slag is made up of coke ash, eroded refractory, sand adhering to scrap metal and products of oxidation of the metallic charge.
If the carbon is precipitated as flake graphite, the casting is called ‘grey iron’, because the fractured surface has a dull grey appearance due to the presence of about 12% by volume of graphite. If the carbon precipitates as carbide, the casting is said to be ‘white iron’ because the fracture has a shiny white appearance. In the early days of cast iron technology, white iron was of little value, being extremely brittle and so hard that it was unmachinable. Grey iron, on the other hand, was soft and readily machined and although it had little ductility, it was less brittle than white iron.
The output of a cupola depends primarily on the diameter of the shaft of the furnace and on the metal/coke ratio used in the charge. 1 summarises the operating data for typical cold blast cupolas. A useful measure of the efficiency of operation of a cupola is the ‘Specific Coke Consumption’ (SSC) which is Annual tonnage of coke × 1000 = SSC (kg/tonne) Annual tonnage of metallics charged This takes into account both charge coke and bed coke. When the cupola is operated for long enough campaigns, the amount of coke used to form the bed initially can be ignored.
Foseco Ferrous Foundryman's Handbook, Eleventh Edition by John Brown