By Simon R. Leather
Insect Sampling in woodland Ecosystems highlights the issues confronted via entomologists operating in wooded area ecosystems.
Chapter 1 Sampling concept and perform (pages 1–15): Simon R. leather-based and Allan D. Watt
Chapter 2 Sampling bugs from Roots (pages 16–36): Alan C. Gange
Chapter three Pitfall Trapping in Ecological reviews (pages 37–57): B. A. Woodcock
Chapter four Sampling tools for woodland Understory crops (pages 58–76): Claire M. P. Ozanne
Chapter five Sampling bugs from timber: Shoots, Stems, and Trunks (pages 77–115): Martin R. Speight
Chapter 6 bugs in Flight (pages 116–145): Mark Young
Chapter 7 options and strategies for Sampling cover bugs (pages 146–167): Claire M. P. Ozanne
Chapter eight Sampling tools for Water?Filled Tree Holes and Their man made Analogues (pages 168–185): S. P. Yanoviak and O. M. Fincke
Chapter nine Sampling units and Sampling layout for Aquatic bugs (pages 186–220): Leon Blaustein and Matthew Spencer
Chapter 10 tools for Sampling Termites (pages 221–253): David T. Jones, Robert H. J. Verkerk and Paul Eggleton
Chapter eleven Parasitoids and Predators (pages 254–278): Nick generators
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Extra info for Insect Sampling in Forest Ecosystems
However, it is noticeable in a number of long-term studies that this process has then given way to other, more automated forms of extraction. For example, Goldson and Profﬁtt (1988) and Goldson et al. (1988) used hand-sorting in the early stages of their work, but subsequently changed to using ﬂotation methods for the extraction of S. discoideus larvae from lucerne ﬁeld samples. A variety of ﬂotation methods have been described (Southwood & Henderson 2000); these generally involve a thorough mixing of the soil sample with water, sugar, or salt solution and collecting the insects from the surface.
W. (1989) Inﬂuence of cropping systems on the number of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) collected in baits in Missouri cornﬁelds. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 62, 590–592. J. B. (1998) Reinvestigation of host location by western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): CO2 is the only volatile attractant. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91, 1331–1340. H. (1986) Differentiating between black ﬁeld cricket and black beetle damage in Northland pastures under drought conditions.
However, if a source of salt, or water, or pipes is not available, it is still possible to determine if tipulid larvae are present in a ﬁeld, by taking advantage of their nocturnal behavior. An area of grassland is thoroughly soaked with water and a tarpaulin or similar item (polyethylene bin liners are an acceptable substitute) is laid over the soil surface (Gratwick 1992). Inspection beneath the tarpaulin in the early morning should reveal larvae, which have emerged at night to feed on the surface, but which do not return to the soil because it remains dark under 20 CHAPTER 2 the cover.
Insect Sampling in Forest Ecosystems by Simon R. Leather