By Peter W. Hawkes (Eds.)
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In general, the emitted current density J, was found to be related to the primary current density JB by the relationship - J, = a I O ~ ' C J ; , where a, /l, and y are functions of the oxide thickness and formation conditions, and V, is the anode potential with respect to the cathode. 71. It was also found that the emission could be increased by shining light on the cathode surface. After the primary beam is removed, the Malter emission decays with a time constant of a few minutes. The Malter effect has been explained as follows: Since the secondary electron emission coefficient for the primary beam is greater than one, the surface becomes positively charged.
If an oxide layer on the surface of silicon is patterned to form discs and then etched chemically with an isotropic etchant that dissolves silicon, the oxide disc is undercut at the same rate as it is etched downwards, forming a cone with a flat top where the oxide remains attached. The flat tip gradually gets smaller until the oxide cap is just released, at which time a pointed cone is formed, as shown in Fig. , 1974). , 1990a). , 1989; Stephani and 46 I. BRODIE A N D C. A. SPINDT 1. 1urn Thick Oxide Pattern Formed On Silicon Surface 2.
VACUUM MICROELECTRONICS 51 FIGURE21. I / V trace for a 300-tip Spindt cathode covering an area 125pm in diameter. 008% of the emission current (courtesy SRI International). voltage at the plane of the gate, as follows: Let p ( x ) , v(x), and V ( x ) be the charge density, electron voltage, and potential, respectively, at a plane at distance x from the gate. Since Poisson’s equation states -dx2 E, En by using the boundary conditions that: at x = 0, dV(x)/dx = 0 and V ( x ) = V g ;and at x = d , V ( x ) = V,; and integrating twice, we obtain where This is simply the well known Childs-Langmuir equation modified by 52 1.
Microelectronics and Microscopy by Peter W. Hawkes (Eds.)