By Michael H. Long
The stories during this quantity discover wishes research within the public, vocational and educational sectors, in contexts starting from carrier encounters in espresso retailers to overseas language wishes overview within the U.S. army. In every one bankruptcy, the authors explicitly speak about the method they hired, and on occasion additionally supply examine findings on that technique. numerous stories are task-based. Contributions contain paintings on English and different languages in either moment and overseas language settings, in addition to a accomplished evaluate of methodological concerns in wishes research via the editor.
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Extra info for Second Language Needs Analysis (Cambridge Applied Linguistics)
Long Diaries, journals, and logs Bailey & Oschner (1983) McDonough(1994) Reves(1994) Role-plays, simulations Berwick (1989) Berwick (1989) Roberts (1982) Content analysis Braine (1988) Flowerdew (1994) Benson (1991) Discourse analysis Sinclair & Coulthard (1975) Crookes (1986) Hatch (1992) Ventola (1983) Analysis of discourse Jacoby(1999) Long (to appear) Marriot & Yamada (1991) Medway & Andrews (1992) Sullivan & Girginer (2002) Register/ rhetorical analysis Biber (1988) Selinker (1988) Conrad(1996) DeCarrico & Nattinger (1988) Trimble (1985) Computeraided corpus analysis Flowerdew (1994) Sinclair (1991) Kennedy(1990) Willis (1990) Genre analysis Swales (1990) Swales (1986) Thompson (1994) Task-based, criterionreferenced performance tests Brown & Hudson (2002) Hudson & Lynch (1994) Norrisetal(1998) Norris et al (2002) Brown et al (2002) McNamara (1996) Norris etal (1998) Robinson & Ross (1996) Teasdale (1994) Triangulated methods Long (this volume) Bosher & Smalkoski (2002) Gilabert (this volume) Jasso-Aguilar (1999/this volume) Long (this volume) Figure 2 NA data-collection procedures Use of multiple measures It is difficult to overemphasize the likelihood that use of multiple measures, as well as multiple sources, will increase the quality of information gathered, whether or not the findings are used for triangulation by methods.
The audit revealed discrepancies, between, first, the relatively high importance tourism organizations said they attached to FLs and the rather minor role FL ability actually played (relative to commercial experience and technical skills) in recruitment and training, and 42 Michael H. Long second, the FL proficiency levels perceived as desirable for staff and the abilities they actually possessed. , tour guides, front desk staff in hotels, and duty free shop assistants, were perceived as requiring higher proficiency, and few staff overall reported themselves as having such proficiency.
However, whereas a NA usually provides detailed information about Methodological issues in learner needs analysis 41 the needs of individuals, and occasionally of much larger social groups (Brecht & Rivers, this volume), a language audit takes institutions or organizations as the unit of analysis and is usually conducted through a quantified general survey. Coleman (1988) effectively recommends that a language audit precede a NA in large institutions, partly in order to identify the individuals whose needs should be targeted for analysis.
Second Language Needs Analysis (Cambridge Applied Linguistics) by Michael H. Long