By Scott Curtis
During this highly wide-ranging research, Scott Curtis attracts our eye to the position of medical, clinical, academic, and aesthetic remark in shaping smooth conceptions of spectatorship. concentrating on the nontheatrical use of movie expertise in Germany among the Nineties and international warfare I, he follows experts throughout disciplines as they debated and appropriated movie for his or her personal ends, negotiating the interesting, from time to time fraught courting among expertise, self-discipline, and specialist imaginative and prescient. As researchers, academics, and intellectuals tailored movie and its expertise to their viewing practices, usually emphasizing the formal connection among fabric and self-discipline, they produced new rules of mass spectatorship that proceed to impact the way in which we make and adventure movie. by way of staging a collision among the relocating snapshot and medical or clinical commentary, visible guideline, and aesthetic contemplation, Curtis showcases either the entire volume of early cinema's innovative effect on society and tradition and the demanding situations the hot medium put on methods of seeing and studying.
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Extra resources for The Shape of Spectatorship: Art, Science, and Early Cinema in Germany (Film and Culture)
The discussion of SCIENCE’S CINEMATIC METHOD ◊ 25 Seddig’s experiment stresses the creation of evidence in relation to a theory (Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion). And the section on Braus emphasizes the creation of evidence in relation to a set of representational options within a discipline (here, cell biology). Each example deals to some extent with all three adaptations, of course, because they are intertwined, but the emphasis changes. In general, I will demonstrate that while the scientiﬁc community readily accepted chronophotography and ﬁlm as valid instruments, investigators still had to perform considerable labor to adapt these devices to their tasks and to transform the resulting images into acceptable scientiﬁc evidence.
So each chapter will explore the history of that discipline (such as biology) by also using the method of a corresponding discipline (such as the history of science). Each chapter, then, is intended to be a hybrid between the methods of ﬁlm studies and those of another discipline. Explaining why the work of appropriation took the form that it did also requires an understanding of the historical and cultural context of the experts, in this case imperial Germany. So each chapter also attempts to provide a social context, but because arguments for and against carried the weight of past traditions and values, a detailed philosophical context is sometimes required as well.
3 2 ◊ S C I E N C E ’ S C I N E M AT I C M E T H O D BERGSON, CINEMA, AND SCIENCE Without a doubt, motion pictures presented scientists with new analytic techniques that could manipulate time and space. However, at the same time, science’s very mode of analysis was newly subject to debate. At least since the romantics, some German thinkers had come to associate science’s empirical, experimental, and materialist method with a cold, mechanistic, and “disenchanted” view of the world. 36 This reaction was not limited to Germany, of course; perhaps the most prominent ﬁgurehead of this rebellion was Henri Bergson, whose philosophy—or its popularization—spread like wildﬁre through the parlors and lecture halls of Europe and the United States in the years before World War I.
The Shape of Spectatorship: Art, Science, and Early Cinema in Germany (Film and Culture) by Scott Curtis