By Roy MacLeod, Jeffrey A. Johnson
This publication represents a primary thought of try to research the criteria that conditioned commercial chemistry for conflict in 1914-18. Taking a comparative point of view, it displays at the adventure of France, Germany, Austria, Russia, Britain, Italy and Russia, and issues to major similarities and variations. It seems to be at altering styles within the organization of undefined, and on the rising symbiosis among technological know-how, and the army.
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Additional resources for Frontline and Factory: Comparative Perspectives on the Chemical Industry at War, 1914-1924
Le sabre et l’éprouvette. L’invention d’une science de guerre, 1914–1939 (14–18: Aujourd’hui. Today. Heute, 6), (Paris: Noesis, 2003), 89–103. 42 BAL 201-5-1, draft telegram Duisberg to Haber, 5 November 1914; Duisberg to FZM (Garke),13 November 1914. ]). COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES ON GERMANY AND AUSTRIA 44 19 HA. 18/1-18 (Weltkrieg I, 1915–1934), Singer, ‘Kriegsproduktion im 1. Weltkrieg’, 17 October 1934, 1. 45 Plumpe, op. cit. note 20, 83–84; Roth, op. cit. note 16. Cf. correspondence in BAB, R1501 (RM d Innern), Wirtschaftliche Mobilmachung, Nr.
50 While BASF at first avoided explosives production, they did make large quantities of synthetic ammonia and nitrates, along with other raw materials and intermediates, most of which went to military uses (including chlorine for chemical warfare). 51 The expansion of their Oppau ammonia plant complex took place roughly in accord with pre-war plans, which the war simply accelerated. 52 By March 1916, Germany had gained the capacity to produce 60,000 tons of nitrates and nitric acid per month from plants built mostly at BASF, Bayer, Griesheim-Elektron, Agfa, and Zeche Lothringen.
Consortia came to manage the links between State and industry, by collecting information and organizing the purchase and sharing of raw materials and other goods between industries, the first of which was established in 1917. These organizations were initially responsible for managing shortages in raw materials; later they became intermediaries, linking government and industry to organize production, integrate industry, manage prices and share profits. During the last year of the war, government control over the economy reached its height, and the government authorized itself, from February 1918, to make all decisions relating to production, distribution and trade.
Frontline and Factory: Comparative Perspectives on the Chemical Industry at War, 1914-1924 by Roy MacLeod, Jeffrey A. Johnson